Books by and about 2020 presidential candidates|
| Crippled America,|
by Donald J. Trump (2015)
by Cory Booker (2016)
| The Truths We Hold,|
by Kamala Harris (2019)
| Smart on Crime,|
by Kamala Harris (2010)
| Guide to Political Revolution,|
by Bernie Sanders (2017)
| Where We Go From Here,|
by Bernie Sanders (2018)
| Promise Me, Dad ,|
by Joe Biden (2017)
|Conscience of a Conservative,|
by Jeff Flake (2017)
| Two Paths,|
by Gov. John Kasich (2017)
|Every Other Monday,|
by Rep. John Kasich (2010)
|Courage is Contagious,|
by John Kasich (1998)
| Shortest Way Home,|
by Pete Buttigieg (2019)
| The Book of Joe ,|
by Jeff Wilser (2019; biography of Joe Biden)
by Michelle Obama (2018)
| Our Revolution,|
by Bernie Sanders (2016)
| This Fight Is Our Fight,|
by Elizabeth Warren (2017)
| Higher Loyalty,|
by James Comey (2018)
| The Making of Donald Trump,|
by David Cay Johnston (2017)
Books by and about the 2016 presidential election|
| What Happened ,|
by Hillary Clinton (2017)
| Higher Loyalty ,|
by James Comey (2018)
| Trump vs. Hillary On The Issues ,|
by Jesse Gordon (2016)
| Hard Choices,|
by Hillary Clinton (2014)
| Becoming ,|
by Michelle Obama (2018)
| Outsider in the White House,|
by Bernie Sanders (2015)
(click a book cover for a review or other books by or about the presidency from Amazon.com)
Congressional 2008 Political Courage Test, by Project Vote Smart
Click on a participant to pop-up their full list of quotations
from 2008 Political Courage Test (number of quotes indicated):
- Bruce Westerman (11) Republican House Member U.S. Rep Arkansas- 4
- Charlie Summers (16) Secretary of State; Republican Senate Challenger Maine
- Corrogan Vaughn (8) Former Republican Primary Challenger (2012) Maryland
- Elizabeth Dole (5) North Carolina Former Cabinet Member (Labor Sec'y) and Senator
- Erik Fleming (2) Democratic Challenger (2008) Mississippi
- Gordon Harold Smith (4) Former Republican Senator (lost re-election, 2008) Oregon
- Hakeem Jeffries (8) Democrat U.S. Rep New York-8
- Jack Hoogendyk (2) Republican Senate challenger (2008) Michigan
- Jay Wolfe (11) Republican Challenger (2008) West Virginia
- Jeff Kessler (8) West Virginia Democratic 2016 Gubernatorial candidate
- John Schiess (9) Republican Challenger (Lost primary) Wisconsin
- Jon Roland (18) Libertarian Senate Challenger Texas
- Kevin Bryant (8) South Carolina Republican candidate for governor
- Lee Zeldin (21) Republican House Member U.S. Rep New York- 1
- Michael Capuano (12) Former Democratic Primary Senate Challenger (2009) Massachusetts
- Michael Lange (12) Republican Senate challenger (2008) Montana
- Mike Johanns (10) Nebraska Former Republican Governor (2005-2007); elected Senator 2008
- Mike Pence (3) Indiana Republican nominee for Vice President
- Rand Knight (6) Democrat Challenger (2008) Georgia
- Ryan Zinke (14) Montana Interior
- Scott Jameson (1) Libertarian Challenger (2008) Texas
- Steven Larrick (22) Green Senate Challenger (2008) Nebraska
- Susan Collins (3) Republican Sr Senator Maine
- Tom Emmer (11) Republican House Member U.S. Rep Minnesota- 6
- Vernon Jones (15) Democratic Senate challenger (2008) Georgia
OR click on an issue category below for a subset.
| OnTheIssues.org excerpts: (click on issues for details)
Bruce Westerman: Pro-life; no exceptions for incest or rape.
Bruce Westerman: Stem cell research ok, but not embryonic stem cell research.
Charlie Summers: Abortions should always be legal.
Charlie Summers: Funding for research on existing embryonic stem cell lines.
Corrogan Vaughn: No federal funds for abortion nor embryonic stem cells.
Hakeem Jeffries: Supports embryonic stem cell research.
Jeff Kessler: Stem cell research ok, but not embryonic research.
John Schiess: Parental notification before performing abortions on minors.
John Schiess: No state funding of embryonic nor adult stem cell research.
Lee Zeldin: Abortion ok for rape & incest, but no federal funding.
Lee Zeldin: No federal funding for any embryonic stem cell research.
Michael Lange: No federal funding for embryonic stem cell research.
Ryan Zinke: Pro-life, but decision should not be made by government.
Ryan Zinke: No embryonic stem cell research; no emergency contraception.
Tom Emmer: Abortions should always be illegal.
Tom Emmer: State funding of embryonic stem cell research.
Vernon Jones: Abortions should always be legal.
Vernon Jones: Supports embryonic stem cell research.
Steven Larrick: No government control over a woman’s body.
Steven Larrick: Supports embryonic stem cell research.
Elizabeth Dole: Existing embryonic stem cell research ok, but no new lines.
Mike Johanns: No new embryonic stem cell lines, but existing research ok.
Jon Roland: Let states regulate abortion, not feds.
Jon Roland: Federal funding for embryonic stem cell research.
Budget & Economy|
Bruce Westerman: Favors economic growth and cuts as opposed to raising taxes.
Ryan Zinke: Our government should spend within its means; no new fees.
Bruce Westerman: No civil unions; no same-sex marriage.
Charlie Summers: No same-sex marriage; defined by Constitutional Amendment.
Charlie Summers: Affirmative action ok, but not in contracting decisions.
Corrogan Vaughn: No affirmative action; not in contracts nor colleges.
Hakeem Jeffries: Supports affirmative action in state hiring & college.
Jeff Kessler: No civil unions between same-sex couples.
Jeff Kessler: Affirmative action for state college but not in state hiring.
John Schiess: No affirmative action in college admissions nor state hiring.
Kevin Bryant: No affirmative action in schools or government.
Lee Zeldin: Supports constitutional amendment defining marriage.
Lee Zeldin: Continue affirmative action programs.
Michael Lange: No same-sex marriage.
Michael Lange: No race and gender in federal contracting decisions.
Ryan Zinke: No affirmative action in college nor state contracts.
Ryan Zinke: No same-sex marriage, nor civil unions, not adoption.
Tom Emmer: No same-sex marriage; no civil unions.
Tom Emmer: Affirmative action yes; but not in state contracting.
Jay Wolfe: No affirmative action; less government in job sector.
Vernon Jones: Constitutional amendment defining marriage.
Steven Larrick: Sexual orientation & gender identity in discrimination laws.
Steven Larrick: Allow same-sex couples to marry.
Steven Larrick: Continue affirmative action programs.
Elizabeth Dole: Discontinue affirmative action programs.
Mike Johanns: Define marriage as between a man and a woman.
Mike Johanns: No affirmative action.
Jon Roland: Allow same-sex couples to marry.
Jon Roland: Discontinue affirmative action programs.
Bruce Westerman: Supports capital punishment; opposes building more prisons.
Charlie Summers: Mandatory jail for drug crimes; penalties for online crimes.
Charlie Summers: Supports the federal death penalty.
Corrogan Vaughn: Supports death penalty for federal crimes.
Corrogan Vaughn: Stricter penalties for drug crimes & internet crimes.
Hakeem Jeffries: Alternative sentencing for non-violent offenders.
Jeff Kessler: More state prisons; also penalties other than incarceration.
Kevin Bryant: Build more prisons; support the death penalty.
Lee Zeldin: Supports death penalty.
Michael Capuano: Eliminate the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
Michael Capuano: Thoroughly review sentencing for non-violent crimes.
Michael Lange: Supports the death penalty.
Michael Lange: Reduce prison sentences for non-violent crimes.
Ryan Zinke: Supports death penalty but also hate crime legislation.
Tom Emmer: Establish the death penalty in Minnesota.
Jay Wolfe: Support the use of the death penalty.
Jay Wolfe: Mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Rand Knight: Provide inmates with job skills and drug treatment.
Rand Knight: Support the federal death penalty.
Vernon Jones: Support the federal death penalty.
Steven Larrick: Eliminate the federal death penalty.
Steven Larrick: Prevent criminal behavior rather than focus on punishment.
Elizabeth Dole: Supports use of federal death penalty.
Gordon Harold Smith: Supports use of federal death penalty.
Mike Johanns: Supports death penalty for federal crimes.
Jon Roland: Supports death penalty for federal crimes.
Jon Roland: Repeal most federal criminal statutes as unconstitutional.
Bruce Westerman: No medical marijuana; no decriminalization.
Charlie Summers: Mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Hakeem Jeffries: Let doctors prescribe medical marijuana.
Lee Zeldin: Mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Jay Wolfe: Treat addiction, but mandatory jail sentences for selling.
Vernon Jones: Mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Gordon Harold Smith: Mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Susan Collins: Provide prison inmates with drug addiction treatment.
Bruce Westerman: Supports charter schools; opposes Common Core.
Charlie Summers: Supports vouchers, charters, magnet schools, standard tests.
Corrogan Vaughn: Supports charters, public vouchers & private vouchers.
Hakeem Jeffries: No abstinence ed nor voluntary prayer in public schools.
Jeff Kessler: More funding for K-12 testing, but also teacher salaries.
Jeff Kessler: Prayer in public schools is ok; so is sex ed.
John Schiess: Vouchers for public, private or religious schools.
John Schiess: Supports moment of silence in public schools.
Kevin Bryant: Vouchers for public, private, or religious schools.
Kevin Bryant: Abstinence-only and voluntary prayer in public schools.
Lee Zeldin: Vouchers ok for private or religious schools.
Michael Capuano: Charters ok, if they don't take money from public schools.
Michael Capuano: Education standards should focus on numeracy and literacy.
Mike Pence: Eliminate "No Child Left Behind" K-12 testing requirements.
Ryan Zinke: Supports vouchers for public schools.
Ryan Zinke: Voluntary prayer provided there's no undue influence.
Tom Emmer: Vouchers for private or religious school.
Tom Emmer: Supports voluntary school prayer & abstinence-only sexual ed.
Erik Fleming: Supports charters, vouchers, and home-schooling.
Rand Knight: Federal funding for charter schools.
Vernon Jones: Vouchers for any public school.
Steven Larrick: Federally funded universal pre-K programs.
Steven Larrick: Federal funding for charter schools.
Mike Johanns: Opposes “No Child Left Behind”--leave it to states.
Energy & Oil|
Bruce Westerman: Expansion of energy sources should be market driven.
Hakeem Jeffries: Produce more oil & gas, but limit greenhouse gases.
John Schiess: Increase production of traditional domestic energy sources.
Kevin Bryant: Coal, gas, oil, AND alternative fuel technology.
Lee Zeldin: Support cap-and-trade, but also new oil drilling.
Michael Capuano: Open restricted areas for domestic oil exploration.
Michael Lange: Develop oil, coal, & nuclear production.
Ryan Zinke: Increased coal production with environmental safeguards.
Tom Emmer: Increase production of coal, gas, oil, plus alternatives.
Rand Knight: Biofuels & clean green jobs.
Vernon Jones: Supports cap-and-trade, but also domestic oil.
Steven Larrick: More ethanol; more emission controls; more alternative fuels.
Jon Roland: Alternative non-carbon, non-nuclear energy sources.
Jeff Kessler: Fund open space & industrial site cleanup.
Lee Zeldin: Strengthen the Clean Water Act & the Clean Air Act.
Ryan Zinke: Cleanup industrial sites; preserve open space.
Vernon Jones: Supports CWA, CAA, CAFE but also nukes.
Families & Children|
Kevin Bryant: No civil unions; no same-sex spousal rights.
Lee Zeldin: Support the creation of a Palestinian state.
Mike Pence: Foreign aid for US security interests & disasters.
Charlie Summers: Free trade yes, but sanctions on Venezuela.
Lee Zeldin: Free trade with China ok, but not Venezuela.
Michael Capuano: Fair trade rather than simply free trade.
Jay Wolfe: Free trade ok, but sanctions on China & Venezuela.
Steven Larrick: We need fair trade that protects people and environment.
Jon Roland: Free trade ok as long as sovereignty considered.
Bruce Westerman: Limit campaign contributions but not campaign spending.
Corrogan Vaughn: Fund federal campaigns with tax dollars.
Hakeem Jeffries: Limit campaign spending and donations, but no term limits.
Jeff Kessler: Limit campaign contributions from PACs and corporations.
John Schiess: No spending nor contribution limits on political campaigns.
Kevin Bryant: No limits on campaign donations nor campaign spending.
Lee Zeldin: Increase campaign donation limit, but ban PACs.
Michael Capuano: Balanced budget, yes; but during deficit, no.
Michael Capuano: Public funding when opponent is self-financed millionaires.
Michael Lange: Limit PAC donations, and full public disclosure.
Ryan Zinke: Limit PAC, corporate, and individual campaign donations.
Tom Emmer: Limit PAC contributions, but all others ok.
Jay Wolfe: Increase campaign donation limits.
Vernon Jones: Increasing individuals donation limits for federal campaigns.
Steven Larrick: Public funding of elections creates fair political system.
Elizabeth Dole: Contributing to campaigns is free speech.
Gordon Harold Smith: Increase individuals campaign donation limit.
Susan Collins: Reform public financing system to get more opt-in.
Scott Jameson: Increase limits on contributions to federal campaigns.
Jon Roland: No constitutional authority to regulate campaign finances.
Bruce Westerman: No background checks, no licensing, for concealed carry.
Charlie Summers: Allow individuals to carry concealed guns.
Hakeem Jeffries: No concealed carry; yes licenses & background checks.
John Schiess: No background checks; yes concealed carry.
Lee Zeldin: Decrease restrictions on purchase and possession of guns.
Ryan Zinke: Background checks are prudent; military weapons aren't.
Tom Emmer: Concealed carry ok; but require licenses & restrictions.
Jay Wolfe: Bearing arms is an individual right.
Rand Knight: Allow individuals to carry concealed guns.
Vernon Jones: Allow individuals to carry concealed guns.
Steven Larrick: We need to reduce gun violence in America.
Jon Roland: Restore militia system--everyone trained in proper gun use.
Bruce Westerman: No public option; no individual mandates.
Lee Zeldin: Expand eligibility for tax-free medical savings accounts.
Michael Lange: No nationalized health care system.
Ryan Zinke: Caps on medical malpractice; no government health insurance.
Tom Emmer: Medical care is not a responsibility of state government.
Erik Fleming: Supports tax-free medical savings accounts.
Steven Larrick: I support universal single-payer health care.
Mike Johanns: Opposes a single-payer government run program.
Jon Roland: Universal health program for military; not general public.
Charlie Summers: Military tribunals for terrorists; deploy National Guard.
Corrogan Vaughn: Military tribunals for terrorists; monitor phones for cops.
John Schiess: Wisconsin should not participate in REAL ID program.
Lee Zeldin: Provides supplies for our troops in the field, not timelines.
Lee Zeldin: Monitoring domestic communications ok; federal ID cards ok.
Michael Capuano: Create Palestinian state; US lead on peace process.
Michael Lange: No terrorist military tribunals; no domestic spying.
Mike Pence: Use military tribunals to try suspected terrorists.
Jay Wolfe: Military tribunals ok; monitoring domestic communications ok.
Jay Wolfe: Expand missile defense; support pre-emptive military strikes.
Jack Hoogendyk: Military tribunals & domestic spying OK.
Vernon Jones: Military tribunals ok; domestic spying not ok.
Vernon Jones: Supports missile shield & pre-emptive military strikes.
Steven Larrick: We spend more for war than all other nations combined.
Steven Larrick: Opposes monitoring domestic communications & federal ID card.
Steven Larrick: Respect international law; no pre-emptive military strikes.
Mike Johanns: Military tribunals for terrorists; domestic spying ok.
Mike Johanns: Expand missile defense; & pre-emptive military strike policy.
Jon Roland: Treat terrorists as pirates; military tribunals ok.
Jon Roland: More SDI funding & more state homeland security funding.
Charlie Summers: No citizenship for illegals; yes temporary worker visas.
Kevin Bryant: Local law enforcement should enforce federal immigration law.
Lee Zeldin: Supports official English & border security.
Ryan Zinke: Punish those who knowingly employ illegal immigrants.
Jay Wolfe: Establish English as the official national language.
Rand Knight: Pathway to citizenship but with official English language.
Steven Larrick: Supports amnesty & a pathway to citizenship.
Mike Johanns: Secure the border, provide no amnesty.
Jon Roland: Secure border from illegal entry.
Vernon Jones: Include gender identity in federal anti-discrimination laws.
Jon Roland: No constitutional authority to regulate private hiring.
Principles & Values|
Steven Larrick: Healthy world relations; healthy planet; healthy Americans.
Charlie Summers: Invest portion of workers' payroll tax in private accounts.
Lee Zeldin: Allow investing portion of payroll tax in private accounts.
Michael Capuano: Raise the retirement age for receiving full benefits.
Michael Lange: Allow investment in private accounts.
Jay Wolfe: Allow investing payroll tax in private accounts.
Steven Larrick: Increase Social Security tax on higher income individuals.
Mike Johanns: Honor our commitment on Social Security.
Jon Roland: Eliminate social security as unconstitutional.
Lee Zeldin: Repeal the estate tax; fight all tax increases.
Michael Lange: Permanently repeal the federal estate tax.
Vernon Jones: Permanent repeal of the federal estate tax.
Jon Roland: Permanently repeal the federal estate tax.
War & Peace|
Charlie Summers: Keep troop levels high in Iraq until "peace surge".
Charlie Summers: More support for Afghanistan; more sanctions for North Korea.
Corrogan Vaughn: Supports pre-emptive military strikes.
Lee Zeldin: Withdraw troops from Iraq only after we succeed.
Michael Capuano: More sanctions against Iran and North Korea.
Michael Capuano: More military support for Afghanistan, but not financial.
Michael Lange: Withdraw US troops from Iraq.
Jack Hoogendyk: Let Gen. Petraeus make decisions on troop strength in Iraq.
Steven Larrick: End the Iraq war as soon as possible.
Jon Roland: One more year of the surge, then withdraw.
Welfare & Poverty|
Charlie Summers: Welfare recipients must work or train 40 hours a week.
Lee Zeldin: Block grants for welfare services.
Elizabeth Dole: Flexibility in welfare programs via federal block grants.
Vernon Jones: Supports federal block grants and local welfare control.
Steven Larrick: Supports federal welfare block grants.
Gordon Harold Smith: Block grants for state and local flexibility in welfare.
Susan Collins: Block grants for state and local flexibility in welfare.
The above quotations are from Congressional 2008 Political Courage Test, by Project Vote Smart.
- 2020 Political Courage Test: House and Senate
- 2018 State legislation: House, Senate, and Governor
- 2016 State legislation: Presidential, Gubernatorial, and State
- 2013-2014 Political Courage Test: Gubernatorial & Senate, plus legislative records
- 2011-12 State legislation: House and Senate plus legislative records
- 2009-10 Political Courage Tests: Senatorial, Gubernatorial, and State legislation
- 2008 Political Courage Tests: Presidential, Gubernatorial, and Senatorial
- 2006 Political Awareness Tests: Gubernatorial and Senatorial
- 2004 Political Awareness Tests: Presidential, Gubernatorial, and Senatorial
- 2002 Political Awareness Tests: Gubernatorial and Senatorial
- 2000 Political Awareness Tests: Presidential and Congress
- 1996-1998 Political Awareness Tests: House, Senate, and State
- Collections of Voter Guides:
- American Family Association iVoterGuides:
- Science Debate Voter Guides:
- CampusElect.org Voter Guides:
- AARP voter guides:
- Vote-USA.org voter guides:
- Miscellaneous voter guides: