The administration was open to domestic originality. It created a department--the Environmental Protection Agency--to police and try to eliminate the pollution of America's air and water; it supported the doomed Equal Rights Amendment (an extra
push for that came from Julie Nixon Eisenhower); it supported national health insurance and increased spending for the arts, and it effectively moved to desegregate southern schools
Source: Ike and Dick, by Jeffrey Frank, p.342-3
, Nov 5, 2013
1970s: first proposed "employer mandate"
In 1965, Pres. Johnson's Great Society initiative led to the creation of Medicaid and Medicare, which provide federally funded health insurance for two under-served groups--the poor and the elderly.
Pres. Nixon recognized the draining effects of
health costs on the economy and proposed a system of universal health care based on what's known as an "employer mandate": all employees would be required to pay for limited benefits for their employees. Although as many as
20 different health care proposals were introduced in Congress during the Nixon Administration, no proposal for universal coverage got a majority vote from a congressional committee until 1994.
Presidents Ford and Carter also pursued reform in the
1970s, but they ran into the same political obstacles that had blocked change for most of the 20th century. Over several decades, the health insurance industry had grown increasingly powerful. The historical odds were against Bill.
Do not tolerate 38 million Americans without medical care
We must seize the moment of freedom's triumph abroad to make America not just a rich society but a good society. The richest country in the world cannot tolerate the fact that we have the highest per capita health care costs in the world and yet
38 million of our people are unable to get adequate medical care because they cannot afford it.
To take a glaring example, we have made the mistake in addressing issues such as the exploding costs of health care in ways that removed market forces from
the equation. We have erred by separating health care consumers from concern about the costs of the care being provided. We need to work out a system that includes a greater emphasis on preventative care, sufficient public funding for health insurance
for those who cannot afford it in the private sector, competition among both health care providers and health insurance providers to keep down the costs of both, and decoupling the cost of health care from the cost of adding workers to the payroll.
While I oppose compulsory national health insurance, I have always supported federal assistance for catastrophic health care. My strong feelings in this respect are a direct result of losing two brothers to TB.
Because of the miracles of modern
medicine, both my brothers would have recovered today. But the experience made an indelible impression on me. From the time I went to Congress in 1947, I was determined to support any proposal to help other families meet such extraordinary expenses
without breaking the family budget.
In 1971, some observers were surprised when I included in my State of the Union message a request for the Congress to appropriate $100 million to launch a war on cancer. Why cancer? Why not some other worthwhile
program? Again, the reason can be found in my background.
When Pat was 13 years old, her mother Kate Ryan died of cancer. I shall never forget the ordeal my mother's sister, Aunt Beth went through when she contracted breast cancer.
Wrong to put health care system under heavy federal hand
It is time to bring comprehensive, high quality health care within the reach of every American. [We should] assure comprehensive health insurance protection to millions who cannot now obtain it or afford it, with improved protection against catastrophic
illnesses. This will be a plan that maintains the high standards of quality in America's health care. And it will not require additional taxes.
Now, I recognize that other plans have been put forward that would put our whole health care system under
the heavy hand of the Federal Government. This is the wrong approach. This has been tried abroad, and it has failed. It is not the way we do things here in America. This kind of plan would threaten the quality of care provided by our whole health care
system. The right way is one that builds on the strengths of the present system. Government has a great role to play, but we must always make sure that our doctors will be working for their patients and not for the Federal Government.
No American will miss basic medical care by inability to pay
I will offer a far-reaching set of proposals for improving America's health care and making it available more fairly to more people. I will propose:
A program to insure that no American family will be prevented from obtaining basic medical care by
inability to pay.
I will propose a major increase in and redirection of aid to medical schools, to greatly increase the number of doctors and other health personnel.
Incentives to improve the delivery of health services, to get more medical care
resources into those areas that have not been adequately served, to make greater use of medical assistants, and to slow the alarming rise in the costs of medical care.
New programs to encourage better preventive medicine, by attacking the causes of
disease & injury, and by providing incentives to doctors to keep people well rather than just to treat them when they are sick.
I will also ask for an appropriation of $100 million to launch an intensive campaign to find a cure for cancer.
Give people freedom to choose health insurance or not
But it compels nobody to have insurance who does not want it. His program under Social Security would require everybody who had Social Security to take government health insurance whether he wanted it or not.
Senator Kennedy too often would rely too much on the federal government. Our health program provides for people over 65 the opportunity to have it if they want it. It provides a choice of having either government insurance or private insurance.
Source: The First Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debate
, Sep 26, 1960
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